The First Fleet Peat Family

Copyright Carol Baxter 2012
Prepared for Peat descendant Jeanette Bradley


[1] Cottle, Basil The Penguin Dictionary of Surnames, Penguin, Middlesex, 1978

[1a] Date of birth from Mollie Gillen’s The Founders of Australia p.280; place from pedigree entry provided by Jeanette Bradley.

[2] The names given to Charles’ children suggest an English rather than a Scottish background.

[3] Gillen p.280; A full transcript of Charles’ trial is shown in Appendix 1

[4] ibid p.xv

[5] ibid p.xv

[6] ibid p.280

[7] ibid p.280. The Founders of Australia states 23 June 1783 while Old Bailey Punishment Summary records this date as 23 July 1783.

[8] The transcript of Charles’ Old Bailey trial on 7 July 1784 records that his term of transportation was seven years.

[9] ibid p.280

[10] ibid p.280

[11] ibid p.xxii

[12] ibid p.280

[13] The Proceedings of the Old Bailey: Charles Peat – Highway Robbery, 5 December 1781 [Ref: The Old Bailey Proceedings Online No.t17811205-1]. A full transcript of the trial is found in Appendix 2.

[14] Gillen pp.xxii – xxiii

[15] King, Jonathan The First Fleet, pp.28-29

[16] Gillen p.280

[17] ibid p.280

[18] ibid pp.256-7

[19] The Proceedings of the Old Bailey: Hannah Mullens – Fraud, 26 April 1786[Ref: The Old Bailey Proceedings Online No.t17860426-10]

[20] Gillen pp.256-7

[21] The Old Bailey Proceedings Online No.t17801206-15. For a full transcript of this trial see Appendix 3.

[22] Captain Arthur Phillip, First Fleet Commodore, May 1787 quoted in Jonathan King's Australia's First Fleet, p.39

[23] Tench, Watkin (Capt.) Sydney’s First Four Years, p.13

[24] King The First Fleet, op cit, p.43

[25] Scott, James Remarks on a Passage to Botany Bay 1787-1792, , 1963, p.1 & King The First Fleet, pp.43-44

[26] King The First Fleet, pp.43-50

[27] Scott p.2 & King The First Fleet, pp.50-55

[28] Tench pp.16&19

[29] King The First Fleet, p.55

[30] The Cape of Good Hope is on the southern tip of Africa.

[31] King The First Fleet p.57

[32] Scott p.4

[33] King The First Fleet, pp.90-91

[34] ibid p.102

[35] ibid p.102

[36] King The First Fleet, p.102

[37] Collins, David An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, Vol.1 p.lxxxv-lxxxvi

[38] King The First Fleet, p.120

[39] Chapman, Donald 1788: The People of the First Fleet, p.16

[40] King The First Fleet, p.120

[41] quoted in King The First Fleet, p.146

[42] Tench p.31

[43] Collins Vol.I, p.1

[44] Philip Gidley King quoted in King's The First Settlement, p.10

[45] King The First Fleet pp.168

[46] Collins Vol.I, p.4

[47] Tench p.38

[48] King The First Settlement, p.26

[49] Collins Vol.I, p.14

[50] Gillen p.280; also Cobley, John Sydney Cove 1788, p.82-3

[51] Gillen p.216

[52] Cobley Sydney Cove 1788, p.81

[53] See respective biographies in Gillen’s The Founders of Australia.

[54]Fowles, John Sydney in 1848 p.11

[55] Gray, A.J. “Social Life at Sydney Cove 1788-89” pp.381-2. Reference to Charles Peat possibly from a letter from Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney dated 16 May 1788.

[56] ibid

[57] Cobley, John Sydney Cove 1788, p.196

[58] ibid p.197

[59] Cobley, John Sydney Cove 1789-90, p.13

[60] ibid p.25

[61] ibid pp.77-9

[62] Colonial Secretary – Petition: George Peat [SRNSW ref: 4/1839A No.755 pp.17-20; Fiche 3105]

[63] Cobley Sydney Cove 1789-90, pp.107-109

[64] ibid pp.107-109

[65] ibid p.103

[66] ibid p.139

[67] ibid pp.193-4 & 276

[68] ibid p.319

[69] Cobley, John Sydney Cove 1791-92, p.319. NB. Robert Forrester is the ancestor of Keith Forrester, husband of Betsy Elizabeth Ann Christie), aunt of Carol Baxter, the author of this monograph.

[70] Cobley Sydney Cove 1789-90, p.262

[71] Cobley, John Sydney Cove 1791-92, pp.70-1

[72] ibid p.93

[73] ibid p.212

[74] ibid p.322

[75] ibid p.342

[76] Cobley, John Sydney Cove 1795-1800, p.230; & Baxter, C.J. (ed) Musters and Lists, NSW and NI, 1800-1802, Entry BF049

[77] Cobley Sydney Cove 1791-92, p.341

[78] Ryan, R.J. (ed) Land Grants 1788-1809, pp.56 & 131

[79] Geeves, P. A Place of Pioneers, p.8

[80] ibid pp.11-12; current Sydney Street Directories.

[81] Geeves p.8

[82] Bowd, D.G. Macquarie Country, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1982, pp.7-8

[83] Cobley Sydney Cove 1795-1800, p.177

[84] ibid pp.232, 246, 260

[85] Gillen p.257

[86] Geeves pp.22-23

[87] ibid

[88] It is possible that these transactions will be recorded in the original deeds registers at Land and Property Information office [Land Titles Office] however these volumes are currently not on open access and need special approval to examine.

[89] Ryan pp.56 & 131

[90] Geeves pp.12-13

[91] Baxter Musters and Lists, NSW and NI, 1800-1802, Entry BG015

[92] Gillen p.280

[93] Gillen p.280. The original for this letter has not been located to date and is possibly found in the records of the Public Record Office, London.

[94] Gillen p.280

[95] Historical Records of Australia, Vol. 3 (1801-2), pp.533-4

[96] Historical Records of Australia, Vol. 4 (1803-4), p.245

[97] ibid p.66

[98] ibid

[99] Baxter Musters and Lists, NSW and NI, 1800-1802. Entries AG064. Also see entries AE387, AF680 & BF049, and also BD202 under Mary Mullins.

[100] Baxter Musters and Lists, NSW and NI, 1800-1802. Entries BD202 under Mary Mullins.

[101] Baxter, C.J. (ed) Convicts to NSW 1788-1812. Entry No. 12549. Also Baxter, C.J. (ed) Musters of NSW and NI, 1805-1806. Entry A1643. Abraham Gordon/Godin/Goding was sentenced to 14 years transportation at the Old Bailey on 11 May 1785, was originally listed for transportation on board the Second Fleet in 1790, but eventually sailed on board the Matilda in 1791.

[102] Baxter Musters of NSW and NI, 1805-1806. Entries A3183, C0831

[103] Ann was baptised as “Nancy” but all other sources refer to her as “Ann”. The native born white children were often not included in this muster despite the fact that they were usually listed if over the age of 14.

[104] This could be a reference to Charles and Hannah’s son Charles Peat however this seems unlikely as no other references to him have been found in colonial records.

[105] Registers of Baptisms, Marriages & Burials – Marriage: Ann Peat & James Webb [SRNSW ref: Vol.5 No.170; Reel 5002]

[106] Sydney Gazette, 12 Jan 1811 p.2 c.3

[107] Dr Geoff Ford, Wahroonga; and also P.J. Scott “The Peat Family” p.48

[108] The small number of crew members on these sorts of vessels, and the surrounding references to Charles Peat suggest that he was unlikely to have served as an ordinary crewmember. If serving on the vessel, he was more likely to have had the role of ship’s master.

[109] Richard Harding was probably a convict transported on the Third Fleet’s Britannia in 1791.

[110] Colonial Secretary Correspondence [SRNSW ref: X702, pp.71-3; Fiche 3283]

[111] Cumpston, J.S. Shipping Arrivals & Departures, Sydney, 1788-1825, p.79

[112] Sydney Gazette, 23 May 1812, p.2 c.3

[113] Gillen p.280

[113a] Peat family information on []

[114] As no trace of the Peats has been found in the other colonial settlements, only those vessels travelling to distant countries (not New Zealand as it was little more than a whaling/trading station at that time) were considered.

[115] Cumpston, Shipping Arrivals, p.81. The only other non-colonial vessels in Port Jackson on 23 May 1812 (that is, vessels who were not travelling between the various colonial settlements or to the fisheries), were: the brig Active which had arrived in January 1812 and sailed on 13/16 June for the Derwent and New Zealand, the Peggy which had arrived in March and sailed mid-August for Calcutta, and the Mary and the Clarkson which had both arrived early in May and sailed early in August for Calcutta. If Charles and his family did not leave the country in June 1812, then they undoubtedly travelled on one of these three Calcutta-bound vessels in August 1812.

[116] Sydney Gazette, 6 May 1816 p.2 c.4

[117] Sydney Gazette, 12 Feb 1820 p.4 c.3

[118] Sydney Gazette, 23 Mar 1815 p.2 c.3

[119] For further information, see the biography of George Peat

[120] Scott, P.J. “The Peat Family” p.51

[121] Charles Peat: [SRNSW ref: Vol.4 Baptism No.82; Reel 5002]; Peat Pedigree Information held by Jeanette Bradley

[122] Ann Peat: [SRNSW ref: Vol.4 Baptism No.162 & Vol.5 Marriage No.170; Reel 5002]; Mutch Index 1814+ [ML]; Sydney Gazette 12 Feb 1820 p4 c3

[123] Elizabeth Peat: [SRNSW ref: Vol.4 Baptism No.479 & Burial No.844; Reel 5002]

[124] William Peat: [SRNSW ref: Vol.4 Baptism No.574; Reel 5002]; Sydney Gazette 23 May 1812 p2 c3

[125] The Old Bailey Proceedings Online - Charles Peat: Trial 1781; Punishment summary 1781

[126] The Old Bailey Proceedings Online - Charles Peat: Punishment summary 1783; Trial 1784; Punishment summary 1785

[127] The Old Bailey Proceedings Online - Ann Mullens: Trial 1780; Punishment summary 1780

[128] The Old Bailey Proceedings Online - Hannah Mullens: Trial 1786; Supplementary material 1787; Punishment summary 1787


ML - Mitchell Library, NSW
SRNSW - State Records of New South Wales, NSW